Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Global Health and Turkey - Essay Example Global Health and Turkey This effort by the government is a good healthcare move because in Turkey cardiovascular diseases are the highest cause for death in non-communicable diseases. The country population growth rate is at 1.2 percent according to the 2012 statistics. TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s population is estimated at almost 81 million. Turkey has had tremendous progress technologically, economically, politically and medically. The biggest positive change to happen in Turkey is its dedication to reducing tobacco use amongst its citizens. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to help in the fight against tobacco use is a beneficial asset to the Turkish people. This is aimed at enhancing the life quality of its nationals. There are still numerous challenges that are still in existent in the country this include the high rate of infant mortality rate, the high unemployment rate and inadequate water supply. Cardiovascular diseases remain the main challenge resulting in deaths alongside deaths from diabetes in non-commun icable diseases. There are currently programs in Turkey that target respiratory diseases, inactivity, obesity and anti-tobacco use. Despite the adequate funding allocated towards health promotion and education, there are no current policies, programs or action plans in operation to increase awareness of cardiovascular diseases. Behavior Tobacco use is an urgent issue that has to be addressed in Turkey. In relation to the question, it is essential to note that Tobacco use in Turkey is so vast that it affects the majority of the population in the country. To curb this alarming trend, it is critical that certain programs and policies have to introduce to increase awareness of the increased use of tobacco. This increased tobacco use has led to high death rates as a result of cardiovascular diseases. To change this behavior of tobacco use, there has to increased awareness of measures to prevent to halt the spreading of this trend. To enable this, screening measures have to be accessible to all the populations to halt tertiary complications resulting from continuous use of tobacco (Phillips & MacCracken, 2012). Targeting non communicable diseases will enhance the life quality of the individuals. Specific Population Affected The majority male adults are the segment of the Turkish population that is likely to benefit from these anti-tobacco policies that will be introduced. This is because mostly the adult males at their prime ages engage in this vice of tobacco use. In Turkey according to national statistics, 30 percent of the population is engaged in tobacco use. This, however, is a minimum statistic as the rates of smoking a said to increasing by the day. Among the highest users of tobacco, 48 percent is men. Tobacco use amongst the men in tobacco has been equated to the fight against terrorism. Because of the extensive use of tobacco, the stereotype of Turkish being smokers gets adopted throughout the globe. Methods to improve this situation To improve this condit ion and in general and to improve the health of Turkish nationals, the following measures have to undertake to curb this vice. Policies shave to be introduced and implemented to curb the continuous abuse of tobacco in Turkey. Amongst the policies, to be passed include the introduction of smoke free environment where there should be no smoking in public places and indoor places (Skolnik,2008). This prevents the exposure to
Monday, October 28, 2019
The Ghost Writer Is Correct Essay Essay In the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s novel The Ghost Writer, written by Philip Roth brings the story of Anne Frank. The protagonist Zuckerman tries to find a new muse to find more meaning in his stories. Zuckerman meets Amy, a girl with a mysterious background who resembles Anne Frank in more way then one. She was the same age as Anne frank and they both are writers, she avoids speaking about her past, and lastly she tried to escape to savor her childhood. From this Zuckerman conjures this idea that Amy could possibly be Anne Frank. Zuckerman tries to recover her past and create this Anne Frank. Furthermore, from the holocaust memoir, The Diary of Anne Frank, The memoir portrays Anne has with her father and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the anger and resentment to stay away from him after the war. This powerful relationship would never cause her to keep this from her father the only survivor from the frank family let alone try to take revenge on him for not getting them out when he could. It would not be possible for Amy Ballet to be Anne frank because it is not possible for a person with a strong relationship with their father like them to possibly do that. Zuckerman assumes that the rumors and speculations that Anne Frank resented her father for his naive idea that hiding would be suitable to outlast the war would cause her to keep her life from him is an overpowering stretch.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Introductory paragraph Nigeria has the largest population of any African country and it is the 6th in the world. Population Growth is the change in population overtime. Nigeria is also the most densely populated country in Africa, that means, nearly one in six Africans is a Nigerian. NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s population is unevenly distributed across the country and the world. In July 2001, NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s population was estimated at more than 123 million people about 345 people per square mile. The population growth rate is influenced by the interplay of the three main demographic processes of fertility, mortality and migration. The population growth of Nigeria can be analysed through the Antiquity of the population of Nigeria, the Current population, the Trends and the Future Predictions of the population of Nigeria. History The population growth of people in Nigeria started from the antiquity of Slavery, Tribes and Culture. Slavery was common in Nigeria long before the Europeans arrived. Slavery also known as Ã¢â¬Å"slave tradeÃ¢â¬ started in Badagry, the second largest commercial town in Lagos, Nigeria. In the early 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s, people were being transported from Nigeria through Badagry, to North and South America. Slaves were brought from all corners and crannies of Nigeria mostly from raided villages and captives of war, who were also brought to Badagry for auctioning. Some of the main slavery countries from Europe that engaged in the slavery of Nigerians were England, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands. The slave trade became a major source of income for the Europeans. It is reported that Badagry conveyed no fewer than 550,000 Africans slaves to America during the period of the American Independence in 1787. The exact number of people taken from Nigeria ... ...lation but also its compositionÃ¢â¬ (2001). Migration could cause a numerical decrease and increase in the population of Nigeria. At the same time, people also move into Nigeria to explore the natural resources such as Zinc, Gold, Tin, Ignite, Oil and Gas etcetera. Nigeria is also free from natural disasters like hurricane, typhoon and so on. Nigeria has a lot tourist attractions, and offers job opportunities to people. This makes people move into Nigeria, and therefore brings an increase in the population growth of Nigeria. The current population of Nigeria is 173,611,131. The Migration, Immigration and Causes are some of the things that influences the population growth of Nigeria. Figure 1/Nigerian Current Population. Source: www.tradingeconomics.com As seen from the table, NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s current population is 13.61 million. Nigeria has a growing population.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
With specific reference to the EUÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine of direct effect, critically assess the extent to which EU law concerning commercial activities are enforceable within member states.
Introduction The extent to which EU legal rules and principles, concerning commercial activities, are enforceable within member states will be critically assessed in this essay. This will be done by reviewing certain aspects of EU law and considering the extent to which EU law can be invoked under the principle of direct effect. It will be shown that whilst individuals and businesses will be capable of invoking EU law through national courts, this will always be subject to restrictions to ensure that the market is not being distorted in anyway. Main Body The Ã¢â¬Ëdirect effectÃ¢â¬â¢ principle is used to confer rights or impose obligations upon individuals in accordance with European Union (EU) law. National courts are bound under this principle to recognise and enforce certain EU legal rules and principles (Dashwood, 2008: 229). If EU law is inconsistent with a law of a member state, the doctrine of supremacy seeks to ensure that EU law prevails. Direct effect was first established in Case 26/62 Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen  ECR 1 when it was held by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that individuals rights, as enshrined under the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, were capable of being invoked before the courts of EU member states. This case demonstrated how EC Treaty provisions were directly effective against members states, and was a welcoming development in ensuring that member states complied with their Treaty obligations. As a result of this doctrine, EU law is enfor ceable within all member states, which has an overall impact upon many commercial activities. This was recognised by Moens and Trone who pointed out that; Ã¢â¬Å"the importance of this unique feature lies in the fact that it is futile for business people to seek to invoke a legal act of an EU institution which could not be relied upon in a national courtÃ¢â¬ (Moens and Trone, 2010: 367). Firstly, in order to be able to rely on a legal act of an EU institution, it is necessary to establish whether the act is directly effective. If the act is not directly effective, then its provisions cannot be relied upon in a national court (Moens and Trone, 2010: 367). The ECJ in Van Gend en Loos formulated a test to determine whether a treaty provision has direct effect. In doing so, it was noted that a treaty provision will be directly effective where Ã¢â¬Å"a) its text is clear and unambiguous; b) it imposes and unconditional prohibition; and c) its implementation does not depend upon any further legislative action by the Member StatesÃ¢â¬ (Moens and Trone, 2010: 367). It was made clear in Case 2/74, Defrenne v SABENA  ECR 631 that there exists two different types of direct effect; vertical and horizontal. Vertical direct effect is the relation between individuals and the state, whereas horizontal direct effect is the relation between individuals (Kaczorowska, 2013: 264). The ECJ in Belgische Radio en Televisie v SV Saban (127/73)  ECR 51 held that the competition rules enshrined in Arts 101 (1) and 102 (previously Arts 81 (1) and 82 EC Treaty (TEC)) Ã¢â¬Å"tend by their very nature to produce direct effects in relations between i ndividualsÃ¢â¬ . National courts consequently have a duty to ensure that the relations between individuals are being adequately safeguarded. Arguably, individuals can not only seek protection under EU law against the state, but they can also seek protection against private individuals. Horizontal direct effect is generally used as a way for individuals to invoke EU legal rules and principles in respect of commercial activities. An example of this can be seen in Walrave v Association Union Internationale (36/74)  ECR 1405;  1 CMLR 320 where the Court found that a measure, which affects a relationship between individuals, may be directly effective. Here, the prohibition of discrimination on the ground of nationality was deemed to have horizontal direct effect in respect of a relationship between individuals (employer and potential employee). Since the principle of direct effect was first established, citizens and undertakings have benefited substantially because of the fact that individual rights have been conferred upon them which the national authorities and courts must safeguard under EU law (Europa, 2013: 1). For example, Arts 101 and 102 TFEU are designed to ensure that competition within the EU is not restricted or distorted. This protects businesses and consumers from unfair competition and commercial practices by producing direct effects in relations between individuals. Art 101 (1) prohibits agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings or concreted practices which may affect trade between EU member states and which have as their object or effect their prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the EU as identified in Case C-41/90 Hofner and Elser  ECR I-1979. Art 101 thus protects competitors and customers against dishonest behaviour, which is imperative in en suring free competition within the EU. The application of Art 101 has been subject to much controversy on the basis that it has been applied to broadly, thereby catching agreements that were not actually detrimental to competition (Whish, 2012: 115). This rendered Art 101 exorbitant and demonstrated the need for courts to apply it more rigidly (Bright, 1996: 535). Three categories of exemptions now apply to Art 101, namely; 1) commercial activities that are beneficial to consumers; 2) agreements of minor importance, and 3) block exemptions for different types of contract, such as vertical agreements (Bright, 1996: 535). As a result of these exemptions, the extent to which Art 101 is enforceable within member states is unclear and it is likely that consumers and businesses will have difficulty demonstrating that certain commercial activities fall within the ambit of this Article and subsequently invoking EU law against a private individual. EU competition law does not intend to stand in the way of legitimate commercial activities, but to instead promote and maintain fair competition within nation states (Europa, 2013: 1). Whilst this is often deemed necessary to prevent unfairness and to regulate anti-competitive conduct, unnecessary restraints are capable of being placed upon commercial activities (Rodger, et al; 2009: 103). Arguably, it is imperative that some exemptions do exist so that the application of Article 101 is not exorbitant. This ensures that any positive benefits stemming from an agreement are balanced against the restrictions that apply to Art 101. Article 102 TFEU is primarily aimed at preventing those undertakings who hold a dominant position in the market. Through the principle of direct effect, individuals will be capable of invoking this Article by showing that an undertaking who holds a dominant position in the market has abused its position as highlighted in Case 27/76, United Brands Continental BV v Commission (1978) ECR 207. Such abuse may include; unfair purchase selling prices, unfair trading conditions, restricting production and applying different provisions to similar transactions (Kennedy, 2011: 237). A degree of uncertainty surrounds the scope of Art 102 because of how serious a finding of infringement would be, which renders the extent to which Art 102 is being enforced in member states unclear. For a firm to be dominant, it is not necessary for there to exist no competition at all and instead it merely needs to be shown, as identified in Case 85/76 Hoffman-La Roche v Commission  ECR 461, that the firm has an Ã¢â¬Å"appreciable influence on the conditions under which the competition developsÃ¢â¬ . It is likely to be extremely difficult for a private individual to establish that a firm has an appreciable influence on the conditions under which the competition develops and as such it is again questionable how far Art 102 will go in protecting private individuals and businesses through the principle of direct effect. Regulations are also subject to direct effect, meaning that they will be directly applicable in all EU member states, as provided for by Art 288 (ex Art 247 T EC). This was illustrated in Case C-253/00 Munoz  ECR I-7289 when it was stated that Ã¢â¬Å"regulations operate to confer rights on individuals which the national courts have a duty to protectÃ¢â¬ . EU decisions and Directives are also directly effective in member states, as signified in Foster v British Gas (1990) C-188/89. This case exemplified the courts willingness to confer horizontal direct effect upon individuals and signified how EU law concerning commercial activities are enforceable within member states. Conclusion Overall, whilst there are some restrictions in place to regulate the application of EU law, it is evident that many EU rules and regulations will be capable of being enforced within all member states. This is necessary when it comes to commercial activities as it is important that some form of protection exists to prevent the market from being abused. The extent to which EU law applies will always be subject to some controversy because of the fact that certain exceptions will apply. Though this is necessary in preventing abuse and ensuring that a balance is being maintained. The extent to which this balance is achieved is likely to be open to much debate though it is evident that member states have made some attempt to invoke EU law provisions concerning commercial activities. References Bright, C. (1996) Ã¢â¬ËEU Competition Policy: Rules, Objectives and DeregulationÃ¢â¬â¢ Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Volume 16, Issue 4, 535-559. Dashwood, A. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËThe Principle of Direct Effect in European Community LawÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Common Market Studies, Volume 16, Issue 3, 229-245. Europa. (2013) Ã¢â¬â¢50 Years of Direct Effect of EU Law Benefitting Citizens and CompaniesÃ¢â¬â¢ Press Release Database, [Online] Available: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_CJE-13-56_en.htm [27 August, 2014]. Rodger, B. MacCulloch, A. and Galloway, J. (2009) Cases and Materials on UK and EC Competition Law, Oxford University Press: Oxford. Kaczorowska, A. (2013) European Union Law, Routledge: London. Kennedy, T. P. (2011) European Law, Oxford University Press: Oxford. Moens, G. and Trone, J. (2010) Commercial Law of the European Union, Springer Science & Business Media: London. Whish, R. (2012) Competition Law, Oxford University Press: Oxford. Cases Belgische Radio en Televisie v SV Saban (127/73)  ECR 51 Case 85/76 Hoffman-La Roche v Commission  ECR 461 Case C-41/90 Hofner and Elser  ECR I-1979 Case 27/76, United Brands Continental BV v Commission (1978) ECR 207 Defrenne v SABENA  ECR 631 Foster v British Gas (1990) C-188/89 Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen Case 26/62,  ECR 1 Walrave v Association Union Internationale (36/74)  ECR 1405;  1 CMLR 320
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Geographically, Italy is comprised of a peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea, as well as two large islands. The shape of Italy has been depicted as a Ã¢â¬ËbootÃ¢â¬â¢ in many cartoons and drawings for years. The country covers over 116,000 square miles, making it approximately the combined size of Florida and Georgia. Killinger, 2002) Italy is a democratic republic that has a current population of around 60 million people, making it the twenty-third most populous country in the world. Italy is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Ã¢â¬ËGroup of SixÃ¢â¬â¢, which later became the G8, and the European Union. (Ã¢â¬Å"Italy,Ã¢â¬ 2010) Italians are primarily Roman Catholic and are required to have fourteen years of formal education.This has lead to a 98 percent literacy rate among the population that only has a growth rate of 0. 02 percent per year, which is one of the lowest growth rates in the world. Killinger, 2002) After the decl ine of the Roman Empire, it took what is now Italy over fourteen centuries to become unified and drive out foreign rule. The state of Italy was formed following the Italian unification movement, known as Risorgimento. Italy installed their first Parliament and declared the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. (Killinger, 2002) In 1922, Benito Mussolini created the first Fascist regime in history. Mussolini later established the Lateran Pact of 1929 with Pope Pius XI, which recognized the Catholic religion as the Ã¢â¬Ësole religion of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Vatican as an independent state.Italy entered World War II in October of 1940 by attacking Greece from Albania. In December of the same year, the victorious Greeks invaded Albania. Their advance was only stopped by German support. In North Africa the Italians were handed multiple defeats by the British and again had to be rescued by the Germans. In July of 1943, American and British forces landed in Sicily. Fifteen days later Mussolini was arrested and power was returned the parliament and the king. In April of 1946, Mussolini attempted escape, and was caught, shot, and hung in Milan.A few days later, the German army corps in Italy surrendered to allies. (Hearder, 1990) At the end of World War II, a vote by the people concluded that the kingdom of Italy would be replaced by the Republic of Italy. In 1948, a new constitution granted the President of the Republic the powers of the chief of state while the head of government was a prime minister with the title of President of the Council of Ministers. A constitutional court holds the supreme judicial power in Italy, while a lower and upper house were set up and were given the legislative power. (Killinger, 2002)After World War II, Italy entered a period known as the Ã¢â¬ËEconomic MiracleÃ¢â¬â¢, which was driven by multiple industries and firms that contributed to the production of cars. These included the steel, rubber, and oil industries. (Amyot, 2004) Oil was d iscovered in the South, in the Northern Po Valley, and in Sicily in 1949. Natural gas was found the following year. (Hearder, 1990) The Marshall Plan also sent more than $1. 2 billion from the United States to Italy for reconstruction. The strong growth that Italy experienced after World War II helped it become a major player in the business world.ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s Quality of Life Index was eighth in the world in 2005 (the United States was ranked thirteenth) and was ranked as the eighteenth most developed country in the world. (Ã¢â¬Å"Members of the,Ã¢â¬ 2010) Some major international companies based in Italy are Versace, Gucci, and Armani in the fashion industry, Pirelli automobile tires, Beretta firearms, and car manufacturers Fiat, Alfa Romero, Maserati, Ferrari, and Lamborghini. In total the automobile industry contributes 8. 5 percent of ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP. Italy is also the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading producer and exporter of grapes, artichokes, and kiwis, and produces about a fif th of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s wine.Italy is also the fourth largest tourism earning nation in the world and the fifth most visited country. (Ã¢â¬Å"Economy of Italy,Ã¢â¬ 2010) Italy is currently said to be in a recession, with industrial output dropping 6. 6 percent in the last year. The shutdown of factories has been announced by Fiat in the wake of falling car sales. Italy is referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"sick man of EuropeÃ¢â¬ due to political instability, lack of infrastructure development and economic stagnation. The average annual rate of growth in Italy is 1. 23 percent compared to the 2. 28 percent average growth rate in the EU over the last ten years.In January of this year unemployment hit 8. 6 percent yet it is predicated that Italy will pull out of its recession by the end of 2010. (Ã¢â¬Å"Economy of Italy,Ã¢â¬ 2010) Culture Values and Norms Since World War II, Italian society has profoundly changed, with a significant impact on daily life. One of the main elements of ch ange is the more visible role women play in society outside the home, such as increased participation in higher education and various professions. One aspect of this changed role is that Italy records one of the lowest average numbers of children per woman in the world, as well as some of the lowest birth and fertility rates. Brittanica Online Encyclopedia) For Italian families, popular daily leisure activities include watching television, listening to the radio, reading newspapers, and going to movies. Italians are also known for their love of sports, something that can be traced back to the ancient Gladiatorial games. Sport is an important part of many Italian festivities like Palio and the Gondola race in Venice. Popular sports include football, cycling, and auto racing. (The Culture of Italy) Italians are very satisfied with their family relations, friendships, and health status, while their economic status and their working positions are less satisfactory.This is especially the case in southern Italy, where there are fewer job opportunities and where unemployment is high. (Brittanica Online Encyclopedia) Though the popularity of home entertainment has grown, the use of public spaces remains important. Young Italians meet friends on a daily basis, often in the citiesÃ¢â¬â¢ piazzas in the evenings, making frequent trips to bars, cinemas, pizzerias, and discos. Coastal areas are popular destinations in the summer. The automobile retains a strong hold on daily life as well. Ownership levels are high, and many cities and towns suffer severe congestion and pollution as a result. Brittanica Online Encyclopedia) Regional life in Italy is typified by a diversity of customs and a great variety of festivals, even if it is their appeal to the tourist industry and to television that helps keep them alive. The majority of religious festivals are dedicated to the Madonna or to different saints of the Roman Catholic faith. The most notable Carnival celebrations are hel d in the cities of Viareggio and Venice, where in 1992 they were financed for the first time by major sponsors. ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s strong agricultural tradition gives rise to a multitude of festivals celebrating the harvest, food, country, and seafaring pursuits.These festivals reflect the traditional activities of the area in which they are held. (Brittanica Online Encyclopedia) Language The official language of Italy is Italian, a descendant of Tuscan dialect and a direct descendant of Latin. When Italy was unified in 1861, the Italian language existed mainly as a literary language and almost each region had its own dialect. Standardizing the language was an important step in unifying Italians, and the standardized language was based on the Florentine dialect spoken in most of Tuscany. The Languages Spoken in Italy) The largest group of non-Italian speakers includes those who speak Sardinian, a Romance language, which retains many pre-Latin words. Some of the other languages spoken ar e German, French, and Slovene. (The Languages Spoken in Italy) Religion 90 percent of ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s population is Roman Catholic. The remainder of the population is comprised mostly of Jews, along with some Muslims and Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholics. Supernatural beliefs are based in the Catholic Church and mixed with older beliefs stretching back to antiquity.In Sicily, for example, Arabic and Greek influences have mixed with popular Spanish beliefs and been incorporated into Catholicism. Thus, there are beliefs in the Ã¢â¬ËEvil EyeÃ¢â¬â¢, charms, spells, messages through dreams, and various other types of omens. People believe witches have powers and in the existence of antiÃ¢â¬âwitches. Many of these beliefs have yielded to the rationalism of the modern age. Others, however, exist below the surface. (Culture of Italy) Italy is filled with over 2000 years worth of holy places. Rome and the Vatican City alone have thousands of shrines, relics, and churches.There are re lics of Saint Peter and other popes. Various relics of many saints, places holy to Saint Francis of Assisi, shrines, places where the Virgin Mary is reputed to have appeared, and sites of numerous miracles are found across the country. Similarly, religious ceremonies are frequent. There are the usual holy days of the Roman Catholic ChurchÃ¢â¬âChristmas, Easter, Pentecost, the Immaculate Conception, and others. In addition, there are local saints and appearances by the Pope. The sanctification of new saints, various blessings, personal, family, and regional feast days, and daily and weekly masses are observed.There are also various novenas, rosary rituals, sodalities, men's and women's clubs, and other religious or quasiÃ¢â¬âreligious activities. (Culture of Italy) Education Education in Italy is free and compulsory for eight years for children between the ages of 6 and 14. Primary school lasts 5 years and secondary education (Scuole medie) is further divided in two stages: Med ie Inferiori, which correspond to the middle school grades and lasts for 3 years, and Medie Superiori, which correspond to the secondary school level and lasts another 5 years.Every tier involves an exam at the end of the final year. Secondary schools are of different types and allow students to choose alternative career paths depending on their interests and aptitude. These include the Liceo, the Istituto Tecnico (technical institute) and the Istituto Professionale (professional institute). The Liceo includes secondary schools oriented towards the study of the arts and sciences. TheLicei are again divided into four types: Liceo Classico, which offers Latin, Ancient Greek, Italian, History, and Philosophy as its most important subjects; Liceo Scientifico, where the emphasis is on scientific and mathematical topics; Liceo Linguistico, which focuses on languages; and Liceo Artistico, which is oriented toward the arts. The university system in Italy is similar to that of the United Kin gdom, where students concentrate on one subject throughout their degree. Courses consist of the Laurea (roughly equivalent to a bachelor's degree) and the Laurea Specialistica (roughly equivalent to a master's degree).There are 41 state universities and 15 other universities, colleges, and higher learning institutes. These include the University of Bologna (the oldest in Italy, founded in the 11th century), and the University of Rome, which is the country's largest. (The Education System in Italy) Social Structure The Italian Institute of Statistics assesses the class system using 6 different categories. The first is the bourgeoisie, which includes entrepreneurs employing a minimum of 6 people, self-employed professionals, and managers. This category accounts for 10 percent of the working population.The white collar middle class covers employees engaged in non-manual jobs and makes up 17 percent of the working population. The urban petit bourgeoisie comprises 14 percent of the worki ng population, defined as small entrepreneurs with a maximum of 6 employees, shopkeepers, and self-employed artisans. The rural petit bourgeoisie, at 10 percent, own and operate small enterprises in the primary sectors of agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing. The urban working class is the 37 percent of the workforce who engage in manual labor. Finally, the rural working class, at 9 percent, are employees of the primary sector.This class breakdown, in identifying two categories each of the working and entrepreneurial classes, is considered to be a more precise method of class division, and has been used since the mid-1980s. (Italian Poverty and Wealth) Despite being a wealthy country, Italy suffers from serious inequality in the distribution of wealth and resources. These dramatic statistics stand out: in 1998, 11. 8 percent of families lived in poverty. The figure was even higher at the end of the 1980s, when families living in poverty represented 14 percent of the populatio n. The contrast between north and south was very clear, with over 5 percent of impoverished families living in southern regions. The gap between the rich north and the impoverished south continues to increase, as does the depth of poverty itself. Of those classified as poor, elderly people living on a simple state pension make up 53 percent of households living in poverty. Their numbers, however, are steadily decreasing, to be overtaken by the working poor. This phenomenon, which looks likely to become a permanent feature of Italian society, affects couples with one or more children, where only one parent works, is under 40 years old, and has few qualifications and, thus, low earning power. Italian Poverty and Wealth) As a result of Italy's generous welfare state, the great majority of poor families do not live in extremes of squalor or deprivation. Essential needs provided by the state include basic health care and education, clean water supplies, and housing. Moreover, extensive f amily networks help those living in poverty to feel less isolated and are sometimes a source of financial help. However, it is extremely difficult for families in poverty to improve their circumstances, and over 70 percent of households classified as poor in 1994 remained poor 2 years later. Italian Poverty and Wealth) Necessity often forces individuals in poverty to accept low-paying and unsafe jobs in the informal economy, where they are subject to threats and blackmail. In urban areas of the south, the younger generation finds it very difficult to obtain work, and poverty drives some of them into the arms of organized crime. Migrations to the north or leaving Italy altogether still remain ways out for many. While poverty is less visible in the wealthy north, it does exist.In particular, young couples with 2 or more children who struggle to meet the high cost of living on low salaries find themselves caught in the poverty trap. (Italian Poverty and Wealth) Economy Italy has a dive rsified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The economy is split between the developed industrial belt in the north and a less-developed, agricultural region in the south. According to nominal GDP calculations, Italy was ranked as the seventh largest economy in the world in 2006, behind the United States, Japan, Germany, China, UK, and France, and the fourth largest in Europe. The Economy of Italy) Italy's major exports are precision machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals and electric goods, but the country's more famous exports are food, clothing, and luxury vehicles. With over 37 million tourists a year, Italy is also ranked as the fourth major tourist destination in the world. (The Economy of Italy) Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75 percent of energy requirements are imported. Despite some short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth, the economy experienced low growth in 2006, and unemployment remained at a high level. The Economy of Italy) The currency of Italy is the Euro. Politics Italy has a bicameral parliament consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate, a separate judiciary, and an executive branch composed of a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. (The Government in Italy) The President of the Italian Republic heads the armed forces and has powers to veto legislation, disband parliament and call elections. He is elected for seven years by the parliament sitting jointly with a small number of regional delegates. The president nominates the prime minister, who proposes the other ministers.The Council of Ministers must retain the support of both houses. (The Government in Italy) The houses of parliament are popularly and directly elected through a complex electoral system (latest amendment in 2005), which combines proportional representation with a majority prize for the largest coalition. All Italian citizens, who are older than 18, can vote. (The Government in Italy) Former Communist Party member, Giorgio Napolitano, is Italy's 11th President and Romano Prodi, an economist and former academic, is currently Prime Minister. Economy Current Statistics After the end of World War II, Italy was left a ravaged and broken country.Struggling both economically and culturally, a culture that was once dominated by farming now developed into cities. Ã¢â¬Å"Italy has the world's 6th (7th including theÃ European Union) highest exports,Ã that of US $546,900,000,000 (est. ) in 2008. Italy, also, is the world's fifth largest industrial goods producer with a US $381 billion output in 2008. Ã¢â¬ (CIA World Fact Book) Italy has a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $2. 09 trillion. According to the IMF and World Bank Italy, is the tenth ranking country for purchasing power in the world, based on its purchasing power parity (PPP).The Italian economyÃ¢â¬â¢s inflation rate is estimated to be 0. 6 percent. The current exchange rates are euros (ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s official currency) per US dollar Ã¢â¬â 0. 7153 (2009). (CIA World Fact Book) The current interest rate in Italy is 1. 00 percent (2010). (Trading Economics) Despite achievements made since the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, Italy struggles with growth in the current world wide financial crisis, considering their heavy dependence based on exports and tourism. As the world tightens their belts, ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s pockets feel the difference. When adjusted to the U. S concept, their unemployment rate as of April 2010 is 9. percent, making them the fourth highest in the world, with the U. S. at number one with 9. 8 percent. (Bureau of Labor Statistics) Currency While the infrastructures of the Italian market and government have evolved, so has the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency. The original dominant coin, the Florin, was created in the thirteenth century in Florence. Each city-state at the time had differing money system and coins. When the country became unified in 1861, theÃ Italian liraÃ became the dominate trade coin. The Italian lira Ã¢â¬Å"was taken out of circulation in 2002. (World Book Encyclopedia) Though the primary currency now used in Italy is the euro, the city of Campione dÃ¢â¬â¢Italia uses the Swiss Franc. The European Union countries that currently use the euro as their currency are Italy, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, and Finland. Ã¢â¬Å"Euro banknote denominations for the euro are 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500. Coin denominations are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cent and 1 and 2 euro. Ã¢â¬ (seeitalia) With a history richly based in the arts, it is no surprise that each coin and bill has been created with a uniquely different design and theme.Designs were created by different artists to depict the works of one of the most influential artists, Raphael. The original coin, the euro 2. 00, set the standard and is a depiction of Dante Alighieri (one of Raph aelÃ¢â¬â¢s works). Despite attempts to be unique, there are standards required of each coin. Each must have twelve stars to represent the twelve countries unified with this currency. Each must also have the year of imprint under overlapping letters Ã¢â¬Å"RIÃ¢â¬ forÃ Repubblica Italiana (meaning Italian Republic). Below this is a letter R, representing Rome.Trading Policies In the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, Italy helped found the European Community (EC). The European Community consists of four components: the European Coal Community, the Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community, and the European Economic Community. Italy was able to strengthen their economy through increased trade with the nations of the European Community. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1993, Italy and the other European Community countries formed the European Union, which works for both economic and political cooperation among its member nations.The European Community was incorporated into the European Union. Ã¢â¬ (The Worl d Book Encyclopedia) Through trade, preferential trade agreements can be used to build strong relationships. Some trade policies can be used to punish those who do not abide by international law. Ã¢â¬Å"ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s trade policy is the same as that of other members of the European Union. The common (EU) weighted average tariff rate was 1. 3 percent in 2008. However, the (EU) has high or escalating tariffs for agricultural and manufacturing products and its most favored nation (MFN) tariff code is complex.Non-tariff barriers reflected in (EU) and Italian policies include agricultural and manufacturing subsidies, quotas, import restrictions and bans for some goods and services, market access restrictions in some services sectors, non-transparent and restrictive regulations and standards, and inconsistent regulatory and customs administration among (EU) members. Ã¢â¬ (2010 INDEX of ECONOMIC FREEDOM) Trading Partners As most countries do, Italy relies on international trade to help sustain their economy.Italy depends a great deal on imports such as food, machinery, metals, motor vehicles, petroleum, and textile yarns. Ã¢â¬Å"ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s principal trading partner is Germany. Other leading trading partners include Belgium, France, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Ã¢â¬ (The World Book Encyclopedia) Because Italy is such a mountainous region, farming and cultivation are very difficult. While the majority of exports are chemicals and machinery, Italy is known for such world class luxury brand as Prada, Armani, Versace, Valentine, and Maserati.Trade Agreements Italy has often led the way for European economic development and international integration. For example, Italy has a membership in several trade agreements. Ã¢â¬Å"Under the European Free-Trade Association (EFTA) member states constitute an enlarged single market. The European Economic Area (EEA) extends (EU) commercial law to the (EFTA) states, thereby providing for the f ree circulation of goods, services, capital and labor, giving businesses the right to establish themselves or subsidiaries throughout the (EEA).Other commercially significant international agreements include numerous tax treaties. Ã¢â¬ (Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada) Ã¢â¬Å"Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955 and is a member and strong supporter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe. Ã¢â¬ (U. S.Department of State) In 2009, Italy was the president of the G8 Summit held in LÃ¢â¬â¢Aquila, Italy. Member of the G8 Summit have come together annually since 1975 to discuss and debate important economic issues on the global agenda . The G8 member countries are Italy, Canada, the Russian Federation, France, Ger many, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Dominant Industries ; Companies ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s massive post World War II trend toward the industrialization of its nation has changed due to the recent global recession.High unemployment rates exist, and a lack of natural resources has slowed the industrial growth of Italy dramatically. Ã¢â¬Å"Three state-holding companies have played a large role in industry: ENI (National Hydrocarbon Agency), IRI (Industrial Reconstruction Institute), and EFIM (Agency for Participation and Financing of Manufacturing Industry). Ã¢â¬ (Encyclopedia of the Nations) The economic situation of the world has deeply affected these companies. As of 2001, IRI became dismantled, and ENI sold stakes in the company in an attempt to eliminate high debt.Despite economic difficulties, iron and steel, food processing (including olive oil, wine, and cheese), textiles, footwear, and ceramics remain thriving Italian industries. Ã¢â¬Å"The bulk of industry is c oncentrated in the northwest, in the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle. The government has made concerted efforts to attract industry to the underdeveloped southeast. (Encyclopedia of the Nations) Several major successful private companies include the Fiat automobile company, the Olivetti company (office computers and telecommunications), the Montedison chemical firm, and the Pirelli rubber company. Encyclopedia of the Nations) Italy is home of some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular fashion designers. Ã¢â¬Å"Black MarketÃ¢â¬ Transactions Despite its relatively high standard of living, problems with crime and the existence of a Ã¢â¬Ëblack marketÃ¢â¬â¢ exist in Italy. The estimated black market value is around $111. 05 billion. Unfortunately, these markets are everywhere. Usually these markets target tourists by selling fake designer goods such as Prada, Armani, and Versace. Italy is also a breeding ground for organized crime. Due to high unemployment rates, mobsters have found a cheap workforce within the recently unemployed.Taking advantage of the economic situation in Italy, the mafia has struck it rich using any and all means of crime to turn a profit. Ã¢â¬Å"It is estimated the mobÃ¢â¬â¢s joint turnover last year at 135 billion euros, topped by trafficking in drugs, people, weapons and contraband worth just under 68 billion euros. Second came Ã¢â¬Å"businessÃ¢â¬ interests like public contracts, gambling, forgeries and supplying illegal labor at 25 billion euros, then extortion and loan sharking at 25 billion euros. Ã¢â¬ (Reuters) The Italian mafia is big business, and would possibly be the largest company in Italy Ã¢â¬â if it was one.Unless the Italian government can intervene, huge amounts of revenue will continue to be lost due to arms trafficking, drug sales, counterfeit, piracy, Ecstasy, human trafficking, and trash smuggling. Standard Operating Practices Conducting Business in General As a business manager wishing to conduct busi ness in Italy or with Italian businesses, having a good understanding about how the country conducts business can yield many benefits. Demonstrating your understanding of their culture and background information will help you refine your approach and be more appealing to them. Spend time reviewing the company dynamics.Italy has a large portion of small and medium sized companies financed primarily by families. As such, the center of influence and decision making typically happens in upper management, which is likely to be staffed by family members. It is also important to know that the time spent on cultivating a relationship is equally as worthwhile an investment as knowing the culture. It serves to position you ahead of competitors that may not have done their homework on the nuisances of the Italian business and culture. Italian style should also be noted as it something not taken very lightly. Italians are very fashionable.You will be judged by your dress code, including accesso ries and how you carry yourself. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a first impression and a lasting one. You must look the part to garner the respect you seek and expect. Business dress does vary between industries and formality can go from suits and ties to somewhat less formal attire. Managers tend to be well groomed with tailored quality clothing. In an ever changing business and cultural world, Italians do not have high regard for in-depth long term planning. It is viewed as a waste of time and at most they will commit to very high level plans and leave room for flexibility and growth.Foreign women can do business without great difficulty in Italy. Being a woman may even be considered an advantage in some circumstances. Statistically speaking, only 38 percent of Italian women under the age of 65 are in the labor market Ã¢â¬â one of the lowest percentages in Western Europe. Few Italian women hold managerial positions. The Italians are generally not inhibited when interacting with the opposite sex. Flirtation is part of the spirit of life in Italy. Business Entry Strategies Entering the Italian market can be accomplished in two simple steps. The first is planning.You should complete extensive research of the market and develop a thoughtful business plan. Second, leverage the U. S. and Foreign Commercial Service (US;FCS) trade events in Italy. The US;FCS Service Program facilitates companies testing the Italian market through an inexpensive agent/distributor dynamic. Participating in the trade events is not only about exposure, but potential sales based on relationships that are seeded. As noted previously, rapport and trusting relationships is a great benefit when doing business in Italy. The trade events can lend themselves to exposing companies to other countries in addition to Italy. http://findarticles. com) Relationships are critically important. From relationships, cooperation can be established for business success. Verbal communication and how articulate you are is muc h more heavily weighted than written communication. It is highly beneficial to brush up on your speaking skills for clarity and conciseness. Conducting Meetings In Italy, meetings are to be scheduled in writing two or three weeks in advance and followed up with a phone call to confirm the details. Depending on what region you are in, punctuality relevance may vary.In northern Italy, punctuality is a virtue and your business associates will likely be on time. You should be early or on time, unless you have a good excuse for tardiness. Whatever materials you have to present should be in print form in both English and Italian. Another cultural influence is how meetings are managed. Meetings are generally informal and the smaller the group the less formality exercised. Agendas tend to be flexible as the meetings are highly interactive due to participant engagement, not to mention that there are multiple streams of conversations going on.There may also be changes in audience members or p articipants throughout the meeting. It is important to start meetings with small talk to get to know your Italian peer otherwise you are viewed as being weak. A few safe conversational topics would be around Italian culture, food, family, movies, wine and art. You should make sure to pay special attention to the eldest person at an Italian business function. If you are expecting negotiations to occur, this is another area that differs by region. Northern Italians are more direct and see time as money.They want to get down to business immediately following brief small talk. However, in the southern part of the country, people tend to be more leisurely and rely on personal relationship development to know who they are doing business with. It is ill-advised to use high pressure sales tactics but you may need to indulge in some haggling over price and delivery. (www. worldbusinessculture. com) You should have a clear understanding of who the authority figures or decision makers are in t he company and for the business transaction you are trying to negotiate.You may expect to have some dialogue with stakeholders and influence a favorable decision, but frequently the decisions are made prior to the Ã¢â¬Å"formalÃ¢â¬ meeting with a smaller group of people to hash out the deal. Essentially, in order to be able to influence the group and the outcome, you will need to be present in the pre-meeting to provide perspective. Before the pre-meeting, the stakeholders would have likely had the information in hand and have had time to review at their leisure, prior to making any decisions in the pre-meeting. It is acceptable to give out business cards while in business meetings, but not in social settings.Many Italians carry two different cards one for business and the other with personal information for less formal relationships. Business cards are exchanged only at the first meeting and should be a hand to hand exchange with the intended recipient. Do not give a business ca rd to the same person more than once. (www. kwintessential. co. uk) You should make sure to pay special attention to the eldest person present at a business function. Business Etiquette Italian culture is inviting and personal, thus when talking, people are up close and personal.While respecting someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal space is preferred in the American culture, in Italy any attempt to create space or distance from the person or people you are talking to is seen as disrespectful and rude. Handshakes are common for both men and women and may also include grasping the arm with the other hand. You will shake hands both coming and departing from your company. As the relationship develops, the greeting may grow to an embrace and air kisses on the both sides of the cheeks. (www. ehow. com) Formal names and titles should be used until you are invited to use first names.Generally in business women will use their maiden names for business and legal affairs, but outside of business they may use their married name or combination of married and maiden name. (www. ediplomat. com) When talking, maintain eye contact with the person or persons you are speaking with, otherwise you will be perceived as hiding something or being deceptive. (www. ediplomat. com) Time Orientation When scheduling meetings, timely starts are important, but it is understood that situations arise that will need attention and interfere with punctuality.Meetings should be avoided during the month of August, as that is a time of national holidays and many companies will be low on staff. In terms of optimal meeting times, it is best to schedule meetings between 10 Ã¢â¬â 11 AM and after 3 pm. (www. ehow. com) You should also make note of time zone differences when making contact by telephone. ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s time is Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) +1, which is equivalent to five hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time (EST). Gifts/Incentives You should follow some general guidelines for gift giving. Refrain fro m giving a business gift until you receive one first.Gifts are expected for social events, especially to express your thanks after you have been invited to a dinner party at a home. Gifts are usually opened at the time they are given and received. Your gift should be a prestigious brand name that is at the same time small and not obviously expensive. Gifts of alcohol or crafts from your own country are often good choices. If you want to give a gift to someone who has been particularly helpful around the office, good choices include fine pens, a framed print/picture, silver key chains, or calculators.Regardless, make sure your gift is a reputable name-brand! Secretaries generally appreciate a gift of flowers or chocolates. If you are invited to a home, bring gift-wrapped chocolates or flowers. Never give an even number of flowers. Do not give chrysanthemums; they are acceptable only for funerals. Moreover, red roses are reserved for romantic occasions. If you are invited to a home an d decide to give wine, buy a good vintage. Bring one or two (maximum) bottles. A good wine or spirit from your country could be an excellent choice as Italians are interested in learning about other countries.If you bring a present from your home country, be ready with a short description of what it is and why you have chosen it [e. g. it is from your home town and has an interesting and unique way of being made, etc]. If you are staying with a family, good gift selections can include coffee table books about your home country, or anything that reflects the interests of your hosts and is representative of your country. Holiday cards can be appropriate, particularly as an expression of thanks to your business associates. Ensure that your cards are mailed in time to be received a week before Christmas.Card sending is not very common in Italy, so your card will be received with interest. There are some gifts to avoid giving to Italian business associates. These include gifts showcasing your company's logo, brooches and handkerchiefs (these items are associated with funerals), gifts wrapped in black and gold paper (traditionally, these are the colors of mourning) or purple (this color is considered a symbol of bad luck), and knives or any other type of sharp objectÃ¢â¬âsuch items may be interpreted to suggest the severing of a friendship or other close bond. www. 1worldglobalgifts. com) Legal Issues FITA provides this chart to explain the legal forms of companies in Italy: |Form |Number of |Minimum and/or maximum capital |Liability |Registration fee |Release of | | |partners/shareholders | | |financial | | | | | | |documents | |Societa a responsabilita |No minimum |Minimum 10,000 Ã¢â ¬, totally subscribed |Liability is limited|About 100 Ã¢â ¬ |No | |limitata (SRL) is a |nb: 1 partner for a sole |and released up to 3/10 at the |to the amount | | | |Private Limited Company. proprietorship. |creation. |contributed. | | | |Societa per azioni (SpA) |Minimum 2 sh areholders. |Minimum 100,000 Ã¢â ¬, totally subscribed|Liability is limited|About 1,000 Ã¢â ¬ | | |is a Public Limited | |and released up to 3/10 at the |to the amount | | | |Company. | |creation. Their liability is limited |contributed. | | | | |to the amount contributed. | | | | |Societa in nome Colletivo| | |Partners' liability |Lower expenses | | |(SNC) is a general |Minimum 2 partners |No minimum capital. |is joint and |compared with Private |No | |partnership. | | |several. Limited Company | | |Societa in Accomanditari |Two types of partners: |No minimum capital. |Liability of active |Lower expenses as |No | |Semplice(SAS) is a |active partners and | |partners is |compared to a Private | | |limited partnership. |sleeping partners. | |unlimited |Limited Company | | |Societa Cooperativa (SC) |Minimum 9 partners |No minimum capital. Liability is limited|Lower expenses as |No | |is a co-operative company| | |or unlimited |compared to a Private | | | | | |depending on the |Limi ted Company | | | | | |status. | | | According to the FITA website, Italy encourages the development of small and medium sized businesses and promotes jobs creation.Companies receive incentives through grants and tax exemptions if they are working in sectors of decline. Registration and licensing status must be drawn up in a deed by the solicitor. They must be introduced within 30 days with the register of companies, then with the Commercial Court of the province where the company will be located. A registration with the local Chamber of Commerce is also required, as well as a notice in the official journal of advertisements. These formalities take about 4 weeks. (www. fita. org) SWOT Analysis Strengths |Weaknesses | |Ã |Ã | |Tourism |Slow Developing Capitalist Economy | |Cotton Commodity |Declining Birth Rate | |Textiles Industry |High Debt Level | |European Union Member |Fiscal Budget Deficit | |Ã |Unskilled Workers | |Ã |Ã | |Ã |Ã | |Opportunities |Threats | |Ã |Ã | |Jobs Yielded From Tourism |Unemployment | |Jobs Yielded From Cotton |Poverty |High Investment Flow Potential |Potentially Insurmountable Debt | |High Export Country |Ã | |Ã |Ã | STRENGTHS Tourism Ã¢â¬Å"Rome, Venice, and Florence are the top three destinations for tourism in Italy. Other major tourist locations include Turin, Milan, Naples, Padua, Bologna, Perugia, Genoa, Sicily, Sardinia, Salento, and Cinque Terre. Two factors in each of these locations are history and geography. The Roman Empire, middle ages, and renaissance have left many cultural artifacts for the Italian tourist industry to use. Many northern cities are also able to use the Alps as an attraction for winter sports, while coastal southern cities have the Mediterranean Sea to draw tourists looking for sun.Italy is home to forty three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, more than any other country, including many entire cities such as Verona, Siena, Vicenza, Ferrara, San Gimignano, and Urbino. Rave nna hosts an unprecedented eight different internationally recognized sites. Italy is a true open-air museum with 65 percent of the world's artworks and historical monuments. Ã¢â¬ (Korea Times) Cotton Commodity Ã¢â¬ Cotton is a the fiber grown to make yarn, thread and a textile called Ã¢â¬Å"cottonÃ¢â¬ that is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in the world. CottonÃ¢â¬â¢s long term growth potential is moderately favorable due to low scores on short supply and substitute products. Ã¢â¬ (Wiki Wealth) Textile Industry Ã¢â¬Å"The Italian textile and clothing industry is unique, lively, innovative, and leader in the world.Its innovation ability represents its main and most lasting competitive advantage. The Ã¢â¬Å"missionÃ¢â¬ of the Italian fashion system lies in offering original and very distinctive products, which meanwhile answer to consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s taste and meet his needs. This also implies a continuous improvement in technical performances of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and finishing. The success of the whole chain Ã¢â¬â from the first processes on fibers to fabrics, finishing operations, and final products for the market Ã¢â¬â is favored by the interaction of a sophisticated manufacturing network, where the strength of each element is at the same time a condition and a function of the vitality of the whole system.This dynamic combination of productive, creative, and managing activities involves about 67,500 industrial companies with large, medium, and even very small scale operations. This unique mix still turns out to be the main point of strength of Italian T/C industry, whose about 540,000 employees contribute to roughly 10 percent of the manufacturing sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s added value. The strong export trend of the T/C industry is shown by the turnover share totalized abroad, amounting to 62 percent of total sales. The significant flow of exports ensures a foreign trade surplus of about 12 billion Euros, which compensate, to a large extent, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s deficit in energy and agriculture.Besides the value which can be measured in figures, Italian fashion, strongly founded on T/C, has enormously contributed to the definition of the ideas of Italian Ã¢â¬Å"good tasteÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"life qualityÃ¢â¬ , with positive effects on Italian products all over the worldÃ¢â¬ (Slide Share) European Union Member Ã¢â¬Å"The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Europe. It was established in 1993 by the Treaty of Maastricht, adding new areas of policy to the existing European Community founded in 1957. With almost 500Ã million citizens the EU is generating an estimated 33 percent share of the world's nominal gross domestic product (US$16. 6 trillion) in 2007.The EU comprises a single market created by a system of laws which apply in all member states, guaranteeing the freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital. Fifteen memb er states have adopted a common currency, the euro. Passport control between many members has been abolished under the Schengen Agreement. The EU maintains common trade and agricultural policies, and a regional development policy. It has developed a role in foreign and security policies, and in justice and home affairs. The EU represents its members in the World Trade Organization and attends at G8 summits and at the United Nations. Twenty-one EU countries are members of NATO. The functioning of the EU involves a hybrid of government and supranational.Particularly the need for moderation of the single market has prompted the establishment of bodies capable of making decisions without the consent of national governments. The exact distribution of competences between member states and Union is explicitly defined in the proposed Treaty of Lisbon. Important institutions and bodies of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Court of Justice , the European Central Bank, and the European Parliament which citizens elect every five years. Ã¢â¬ (EU School) WEAKNESSES Slow Developing Capitalist Economy Ã¢â¬Å"The Italian economy has changed dramatically since the end of World War II.From an agriculturally based economy, it has developed into an industrial state ranked as the world's fifth-largest industrial economy. Italy belongs to the Group of Eight (G-8) industrialized nations; it is a member of the European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Italy has few natural resources. With much of the land unsuited for farming, it is a net food importer. There are no substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil. Proven natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic, have grown in recent years and constitute the country's most important mineral resource. Most raw materials needed for manufacturing and more than 80 percent of the country's energy sources are imported.Ital y's economic strength is in the processing and the manufacturing of goods, primarily in small and medium-sized family-owned firms. Its major industries are precision machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electric goods, and fashion and clothing. Italy continues to grapple with budget deficits and high public debtÃ¢â¬â2. 6 percent and 105. 9 percent of GDP for 2008, respectively. Italy joined the European Monetary Union in 1998 by signing the Stability and Growth Pact, and as a condition of this Euro zone membership, Italy must keep its budget deficit beneath a 3 percent ceiling. The Italian Government has found it difficult to bring the budget deficit down to a level that would allow a rapid decrease of that debt.The worsening of the economic situation is expected to jeopardize this effort. The deficit is expected to grow well above the 3 percent ceiling in 2009 and 2010. Italy's economic growth averaged only 0. 8 percent in the period 2001-2008; 2008 GDP decreas ed 1. 0 percent, largely due to the global economic crisis and its impact on exports and domestic demand. GDP is expected to contract further, with a huge decrease in 2009 (ranging from 2 percent to 3 percent) as the Euro zone and world economies slow. Italy's closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 60. 1 percent of its total trade (2007 data).Italy's largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany (12. 9 percent), France (11. 4 percent), and the United Kingdom (5. 8 percent). Italy continues to grapple with the effects of globalization, where certain countries (notably China) have eroded the Italian lower-end industrial product sector. The Italian economy is also affected by a large underground economyÃ¢â¬âworth some 27 percent of ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP. This production is not subject, of course, to taxation and thus remains a source of lost revenue to the local and central government. Ã¢â¬ (Travel Docs) Declining Birth Rate Ã¢â¬Å"Italy, as we all know, is the world center of the Catholic Church.Strangely, in spite of its deep-rooted Catholic culture and tradition, it has today changed into a nation having the second lowest birth rates in Europe, next only to Spain. At 1. 2 per woman that means one child per woman, according to Global Agenda Magazine. It was brought out in an article in April 2004 in the Sunday Telegraph that Sweden's Birth rate was close to Italy's though 50 percent higher. In order to arrest this situation, the Italian Government started offering 1,000 Euros to every woman who had a second child. Other traditionally Catholic nations, like Ireland and France, have the highest and second highest birth rates in Europe.Even Sweden has a 50 percent higher birth rate in comparison to Italy. These increased numbers may be due to better government-controlled child and health care facilities as well as incentives for families that have more children. Ã¢â¬ (Trans4Mind) High Debt Level Ã¢â¬Å"ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s public debt, the highest among the 27 nations of the European Union, rose last year as the economy contracted the most in more than 30 years, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank said today. The debt climbed to 105. 8 percent of gross domestic product from 103. 5 in December 2007, the Bank of Italy said in a faxed statement. The debt reached 108. 1 percent of GDP in January 2009, the central bank also said. Italy will contract 2. percent in 2009 after shrinking 1 percent last year, Bank of ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s deputy director general, Ignacio Viscous, said on March 4. The budget deficit rose in 2008 to 2. 7 percent of GDP, the Rome-based national statistics office, Istat, said on March2. This yearÃ¢â¬â¢s budget deficit will widen to 3. 7 percent of GDP and overall debt will soar to 110. 5 percent of output from 105. 9 percent, the government forecast on Feb. 9. Italy should raise the retirement age for women as a way to stop pension costs from increasi ng, European Union finance ministers said on March 10. As pensioners become a larger part of the population, falling tax receipts and increased government spending threaten to swell the overall debt. Ã¢â¬ (Italian Economy) Fiscal Budget Deficit ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s government cut its economic growth forecasts for this year and next, citing a Ã¢â¬Å"more containedÃ¢â¬ recovery in exports than in other European nations, and also raised its debt projections. Gross domestic product will rise 1 percent in 2010 and 1. 5 percent in 2011, down respectively from the 1. 1 percent and 2 percent predicted in January, according to the forecast included in a document posted on the Finance MinistryÃ¢â¬â¢s website today. The government raised its debt forecast to 118. 4 percent of GDP this year and 118. 7 percent next year, from a previous prediction of 116. 9 percent and 116. 5 percent, respectively. This month, the European Commission forecast Italian debt of 118. percent of GDP this year and 1 18. 9 percent in 2011. Ã¢â¬ (Italian Economy) Unskilled Workforce Ã¢â¬Å"Unemployment is a regional issue in ItalyÃ¢â¬âlow in the north, high in the south. The overall national rate is at its lowest level since 1992. Chronic problems of inadequate infrastructure, corruption, and organized crime act as disincentives to investment and job creation in the south. A significant underground economy absorbs substantial numbers of people, but they work for low wages and without standard social benefits and protections. Women and youth have significantly higher rates of unemployment than do men. Unions claim to represent 40 percent of the work force.Most Italian unions are grouped in four major confederations: the General Italian Confederation of Labor (CGIL), the Italian Confederation of Workers' Unions (CISL), the Italian Union of Labor (UIL), and the General Union of Labor (UGL), which together claim 35 percent of the work force. These confederations formerly were associated with im portant political parties or currents, but they have evolved into fully autonomous, professional bodies. The CGIL, CISL, and UIL are affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and customarily coordinate their positions before confronting management or lobbying the government. The confederations have had an important consultative role on national social and economic issues. Ã¢â¬ (Travel Docs) OPPORTUNITIES Jobs Yielded from Tourism Ã¢â¬Å"With more than 43. 7 million tourists a year, Italy ranks fourth among tourists destination in the world.People mainly come to Italy for its rich art, cuisine, history, fashion and culture, it's beautiful coastline and beaches, its mountains, and priceless ancient monuments, especially those from the Greek civilization and Roman civilization. Tourism is one of Italy's fastest growing and most profitable industrial sectors, with an estimated revenue of $42. 7 billion. Ã¢â¬ (Tourism In Italy) Jobs Yielded from C otton Ã¢â¬ Cotton is a the fiber grown to make yarn, thread and a textile called Ã¢â¬Å"cottonÃ¢â¬ that is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in the world. CottonÃ¢â¬â¢s long term growth potential is moderately favorable due to low scores on short supply and substitute products. Ã¢â¬ (Cotton Commodity)High Investment Flow Potential Italy welcomes and encourages foreign direct investment, but the government of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi that took office in April 2008 has taken only modest steps toward structural economic reform that could increase investment, business creation, production and employment. Economic policymakers have been mainly preoccupied addressing the effects on Italy of the severe global economic downturn. The GOI has focused on measures to stimulate aggregate demand and demand for products of sensitive sectors such as autos and household durable goods. In early 2009 the government adopted additional modest fiscal incentives for companies, fo reign ones included, investing in research and some new equipment, and temporarily eliminated a small surtax on firms. As an EU Member State, Italy is bound by EU treaties and legislation, some of which have an impact on business investment.Under the EU treatyÃ¢â¬â¢s right of establishment, Italy is generally obliged to provide national treatment to foreign investors established in Italy or in another EU member state. Exceptions include access to government subsidies for the film industry, capital requirements for banks domiciled in non-EU member countries, and restrictions on non-EU-based airlines operating domestic routes. Italy also has investment restrictions in the shipping sector. EU and Italian anti-trust laws give EU and Italian authorities the right to review mergers and acquisitions over a certain financial threshold. The government may block mergers involving foreign firms for Ã¢â¬Å"reasons essential to the national economyÃ¢â¬ or if the home government of the forei gn firm applies discriminatory measures against Italian firms.Foreign investors in the defense or aircraft manufacturing sectors are likely to encounter an opaque process and resistance from the many ministries charged with approving foreign acquisitions of existing assets or firms, most of which are controlled to some degree by the para-statal defense conglomerate Finmeccanica. The EU in 2009 ordered the GOI to recover from a US investor previously agreed subsidies for electricity. The GOI had provided these subsidies to induce the investor to keep two plants operating in Italy. The fate of the plants is up in the air, pending the GOI finding an acceptable mechanism to make energy available to the investor at a market-comparable price, i. e. , close to the median cost of electricity in other western European countries. Ã¢â¬ (Investment Climate) High Export Country Ã¢â¬Å"The demand for Italian products is at an all time high.Italy has become known for niche products, including f ashion eye-wear, specialized machine tools, packaging, stylish furniture, and other products featuring high design. Italy produced 1,579,656 automobiles in 2001, a 9 percent drop from 2000. It also manufactured 42,618 heavy trucks in 2000. The construction industry stands to gain in importance in the early 2000s, as Italy's less-developed regions are slated for infrastructure development. Ã¢â¬ (Industry in Italy) THREATS Unemployment Ã¢â¬Å"Unemployment is a regional issue in ItalyÃ¢â¬âlow in the north, high in the south. The overall national rate is at its lowest level since 1992. Chronic problems of inadequate infrastructure, corruption, and organized crime act as disincentives to investment and job creation in the south.A significant underground economy absorbs substantial numbers of people, but they work for low wages and without standard social benefits and protections. Women and youth have significantly higher rates of unemployment than do men. Unions claim to represent 40 percent of the work force. Most Italian unions are grouped in four major confederations: the General Italian Confederation of Labor (CGIL), the Italian Confederation of Workers' Unions (CISL), the Italian Union of Labor (UIL), and the General Union of Labor (UGL), which together claim 35 percent of the work force. These confederations formerly were associated with important political parties or currents, but they have evolved into fully autonomous, professional bodies.The CGIL, CISL, and UIL are affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and customarily coordinate their positions before confronting management or lobbying the government. The confederations have had an important consultative role on national social and economic issues. Ã¢â¬ (Travel Docs) Poverty Ã¢â¬Å"More than one in 25 Italians lived in absolute poverty before the latest recession hit the country as difficulty in entering the labor market made it hard for people to reach an a cceptable living standard. The number of Italians living below the level of absolute poverty reached 2. 4 million in 2007, statistics office Istat said today. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s equivalent to 4. 1 percent of the population, up from 3. percent in 2006, the Rome-based statistics agency said in a report today. The absolute poverty threshold is based on a basket of necessary goods and services rather than on average household consumption, as in relative poverty.Italy entered its fourth recession since 2001 in the third quarter of last year as the global financial crisis aggravated the effects of waning productivity, prompting companies including Fiat Spa, ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest manufacturer, and Luxottica Group Spa, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest eyeglasses maker, to cut jobs. Earlier this year, the government gave 1 million of the poorest pensioners and 300,000 of the lowest-paid employees shopping cards inspired by the U. S. subsidy program known as food stamps. The position of family members in the labor market is clearly related to whether the family is under the level of absolute poverty,Ã¢â¬ Istat said. Ã¢â¬Å"The most serious problems arise when no family member is employed or when a worker has retired and has no current or past income from employment; 20. 5 percent of people in this situation are in absolute poverty. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ (Italian Economy) Potentially Insurmountable Debt Ã¢â¬Å"Fears are mounting that Italy will be the next European country to be hit by the sovereign debt crisis, which has seen GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s credit rating slashed to junk. Markets believe Italy will be the next Euro zone country to see its credit rating downgraded due to its high levels of debt and weak economy.Were that to happen, it would severely impact ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to borrow money and finance its operations. The panic in financial markets started with Greece Ã¢â¬â struggling to repay its creditors due to massive debts, low tax receipts, messy public finances and an a iling economy. Ã¢â¬ (Fears for Italy) Conclusion Global expansion to Italy should be favorable, especially among companies that can contribute to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s already booming tourism industries. Companies that specialize in economies of scale in production of textiles, precision machinery, chemicals, electric goods, food, and clothing could locate production facilities in this country. Jobs provided to unemployed workers would make up for the increased competition with domestic companies.Businesses could enter the Italian market and provide jobs to unemployed workers. This might persuade many younger citizens to turn away from crime and the mafia. These workers could then learn employment skills and earn an income to support their families. Unemployment rates would improve, and the workforce would be much more skilled and have more discretionary income per family. There are many strengths and opportunities to take advantage of, such as ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s membership in the EU, and the potential to create jobs. Although Italy is considered to currently be in a recession, it is not expected to last very much longer. Italy has experienced strong growth throughout various periods of time.Italians still continue to hold fast o their strong cultural values, and business is expected to continue to prosper. If the decision to expand business within Italy is made, the optimal mode of entry would be to enter the country with production facilities of goods that are not overly expensive. Italy has seen a decline in production of expensive luxury items such as the Fiat and various fashion designer items. It would be beneficial to a company entering the host country of Italy to consider the current status of the worldwide economy and ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s unmanageable high debt. It may be preferred to delay entering the Italian market until the temporary recession the country is in passes. Governments ay still block mergers and acquisitions, so a method of entry may be a Gre enfield operation, where the company enters the foreign market as a new operation.References Killinger, Charles. (2002). The History of Italy. Greenwood Pub Group. Hearder, H. (1990). Italy: A Short History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Italy. (2010, June 15). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Italy Amyot, G. (2004). Business, The State and Economic Policy Ã¢â¬â The Case of Italy. New York, NY: 2004. Members of the EU Ã¢â¬â Italy. (2010, June 15). Retrieved from http://europa. eu/abc/european_countries/eu_members/italy/index_en. htm Ecomony of Italy. (2010, June 15). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Economy_of_Italy
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
A Game Plan for Planting New Churches Free Online Research Papers Ã¢â¬Å"Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go. When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. Then Jesus came to them and said, Ã¢â¬ËAll authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the ageÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (NIV Mat 28:16-20). The Great Commission is JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ command for all Christians to spread the news of the Kingdom of God and disciple to unbelievers. But just how are Christians supposed to do this? There are several obstacles a church planter must overcome in order to establish a new church in rural America in the twenty-first century. In order for the church planter to fulfill his/her vision in following JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ instruction to plant this new church a game plan must be drawn up, followed through on, and carried out. Church planting is a team effort of several people and organizations, and just as Jesus instructed the eleven disciples to work together, so must the church planter work with his or her team. According to Aubrey Malphurs book, Planting Growing Churches for the Twenty First Century, Ã¢â¬Å"Church planting is a long drawn out, yet very exciting leap of faith that includes the preparation and growing of new local churches by believing JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ promise and obeying His Great Commission to further His kingdomÃ¢â¬ (21). Ã¢â¬Å"Make disciples of all nationsÃ¢â¬ is the most important and stressed command given by Jesus in the Great Commission. Faith, discipleship, and obedience are required to fulfill this command, not just for the disciple, but for the listener as well (Hesselgrave 23). WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the Game Plan? Every church planter must have a game plan to have a successful ministry. This plan is a well written schedule of short and long term goals to be accomplished, tasks that need to be completed for each goal, and the people or items needed to fulfill each task. The plan of conceiving the new church to opening the doors for that first Sunday service may be several months apart, but without organization, the team can never fulfill JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ command (Heron). Malphurs also states in his book, Ã¢â¬Å"It is critical to the ultimate success of the new church that it has a single, clear vision. The church must know where it is going!Ã¢â¬ (119). OneÃ¢â¬â¢s theology of ministry will have a powerful impact on the developed game plan. If a person is too professionalized in his or her idea of the new church to be planted, his or her strategy of the church and its growth will be radically different from the person who believes in a more contemporary ministry for every new believer (Brock 19). Recruiting your team No one person can successfully plant a new church. A Christian can simply look at Jesus to see that our Lord and Savior needed twelve people to help Him start the greatest church of all time! Finding the right people for the team of church planters is a tough, yet rewarding challenge in the game plan. Further, take a look at Paul. He did not try to carry out the Great Commission alone, but instead used his team of Barnabas, Timothy, Luke and several others to makes disciples of all nations (Malphurs 285). The church planter cannot simply place an ad in the newspaper for a support team. He/she must go out and canvas to find the right people God has in mind for the new church. The church planter must meet with each individual on a one to one basis and be able to articulate the vision and core values of the church, market the church benefits and its opportunities of ministering to seekers and new believers, and build a positive relationship with the new team from that first impression (Ritchey 56). There are several ways to recruit the future members of a church planting team. School and seminaries often are good places to find other people who share your vision of church planting. These people will have different spiritual gifts and skills than a church planter that can be utilized to add to the strength of your team in fulfilling the Great Commission (Back 37). Located in the back yard of the new church are a plethora of people looking to become part of a new church team. They may have skills never tapped by other churches, or they may be looking for that little bit of encouragement, nurturing, and training to discover the talents God has given them (Swauger 27). Networking with other churches in the area is another great source for locating a support team. These churches may loan out their staff to help assist the new church in its growth by having one of the pastors lead a series of sermons, having the worship team perform one Sunday a month, or even have a team of teachers help with the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ministry in the new church (Ritchey 59). Making contact with the churches in the area and developing relationships will lead to nothing but rewards for everyone involved. Some benefits to having a core team in place right away is that the team already makes up a church. It may be a small church, but it is a church nonetheless. A team working together in good and bad times shows the new congregation just how tight knit and powerful the glory of God is working through them. As the new members see the core team working together in love and harmony, they will perceive the Gospel as not empty words, but as reality (Shenk 44). Another reason for having a strong core team is that it allows the power of leadership to be divided among others, thereby alleviating the stress and burden off the shoulders from the church planter. By sharing the responsibilities of building and planting the new church, it allows the congregation to see and accept leadership in the various church communities (Wagner 142). Affiliation Another aspect of church planting must be decided is whether the church planter is going to be adopted by a mother church and choose to affiliate with the mother churchÃ¢â¬â¢s denomination, or whether will the new church be an independent entity. A mother church, is a larger, more established church in the area which gives financial and spiritual support, and is the denomination the new church wishes to follow. There are several pros and cons associated with making this critical decision. The easiest reason for a new church to be adopted by a mother church is the support given by the mother church. After the honeymoon phase of planting a new church is over, isolation from other churches tends to set in. Some independent churches do tend to form alliances and support groups with other independents to overcome the struggles they face on their own (Schaller 47). From these independent support groups, the churches usually find they are able to survive the early growing pains of a new church life until they are able to become more established. Another reason to be adopted by a mother church is to receive the denominational resources provided by the regional or divisional headquarters. These resources can be discounts on educational materials for Bible classes, low interest construction loans, and receiving the services of staff specialists or counselors in times of need (Schaller 47). A tremendous benefit and boost to planting the new church is to be sponsored by a mother church. This is also known as creating a multi site congregation. There have been times when a larger congregation has out grown its current location. Instead of building a new church and moving the entire congregation to this new facility, they may in turn purchase a new church and run both churches as one legal corporation. In this case, there would be one senior pastor for each church, but one leadership board, one staff, one budget. Each church would live on its own with its own services, events, and Bible classes, but would have the support and strength of the mother church. Eventually, the daughter church would splinter off on its own and become its own legal corporation (Miller 62). Ã ¬Location Location of the new church is another obstacle faced by the church planter. So many options come into play that most planters need the help of their support staff to keep from being overwhelmed. Does the new church rent a facility in the beginning? If so, where and for how long do they lease? If and when the new church decides to buy its first piece of real estate, the church planter and his/her team are inundated with needing to choose how big of a piece of land, the geographic location, the size of the building, and deciding if they wish to have extra land to expand upon at a later date. Most new churches do not have the financial means to spend on a parcel of land, the architects and contractors to build the church, or the furniture needed to fill the church. They have to start small and the best locations tend to be middle or high school classrooms or auditoriums. Schools tend to be in well settled areas and are easy to find. The rent charged by schools tends to be cheaper than leasing from a banquet hall and furniture is generally provided. The schools do offer ample parking, and, as the church grows, the space is generally available to expand in the auditorium or cafeteria of the school (Swauger 33). Another perk with using a school to start the new church is the church planter already has classrooms available for Sunday school or Bible classes. This may add a small additional cost to the lease and the core team may be held responsible for following through on clean up afterwards, but anything to help the church body to grow is a blessing. Other temporary locations that have worked for new churches are at local shopping malls. This allows young and old shoppers alike to see and Ã¢â¬Å"window shopÃ¢â¬ the church while conducting their normal shopping needs. The church can also offer special programs during the week to help boost the visibility by offering Christian daycare, counseling programs, or a neighborhood crime watch (Malphurs 332). Once the church body out grows the initial facility, looking to purchase a tract of land to build the permanent church home is required. If the town has new housing or growth in a particular area, then focusing in that area may be the smartest move. In this case, large areas of land can be purchased to allow the church to grow as it needs, whether it is by adding new buildings, more parking, or even recreational areas for the children and adult members (Swauger 33). If there are no growth spurts in the town or no large tracts available in adequate areas, then the church planter and his/her team should look into buying an older church. Over the years, several churches have lost members and struggle with the current economic conditions (Chaney 14). These churches may allow another church to move in and share the facilities and expenses while still completing the Great Commission (Malphurs 331). Church Facilities Along with the location of the new church, the church planter and the core team need to consider several other factors concerning where the new church family is going to meet. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t like going to a dark restaurant or walking two blocks to go to their favorite store, so why should the place they worship God be any different? Appearance is the most important factor when choosing the location of the new church. The appearance of the new church is going to affect the core teamÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude dramatically. The core team will be working at the new church quite extensively and people tend to see their environment as a reflection of themselves. Also, seekers are looking to find a church that meets their high standards caused by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. If they cannot find a church because it is hard to find or located in a troubled neighborhood, the seekers are going to stay away. If the building is in disrepair they will not come. If they do come, the seekers may reject the message given because of the repairs needed (Malphurs 325). The location must be visible from the street and have access for all types of vehicles and be handicap friendly. People with special needs may require the assistance of a ramp, automatic doors, or wider aisles between the pews. To not accommodate the needs of the challenged is to fail in the Great Commission (Malphurs 325). There is an old saying that cleanliness is next to godliness. In a new church, cleanliness is godliness! When people come to a church, they generally look at two things in particular for dirt: the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bathroom and the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ministry. Parents want to make sure their children are in safe conditions and with infants, generally the mother will handle the babies in the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s restroom for changing dirty diapers. Malphurs states in his book, Ã¢â¬Å"Pastor Bill HybelÃ¢â¬â¢s of Willow Creek Community Church believes this is so important that not only are the facilities cleaned once per week, but nicks and scratches are cleaned and repaired as wellÃ¢â¬ (326). Who, Why, and How Do We Gather a Following? For the church planter to decide who the new church is going to minister to can be a tough choice. It can be compared to choosing which sport you wish to play as a child. Do you wish to have the new church focus on single adults looking for a more contemporary foundation? Or does the new church want to appeal to families with younger children interested in youth ministries? Choosing the type of people you want to disciple to is like choosing your favorite sport. You can actively participate in two or three successfully. But just as you canÃ¢â¬â¢t excel in every sport you try, the church planter cannot appeal to every type of person in the world. Once the church planter and the core team have decided on a target group or groups to minister to, a plan has to be developed that reaches the people. Several low cost methods are available that have proven to be effective. These include direct mailings, email blitzes, billboard advertisements, and simple network marketing with local churches and support groups. Telemarketing and door to door canvassing have proven to not be as effective as they once were in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s (Schaller 90, 98 and Ritchey 55-58). In 1990, there were 80 million people in the United States who did not claim to be affiliated with any church or other religious body (Church). This represents almost one third of the population in the United States. In Churches PlantingChurches, nonbelievers were asked in a survey why they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t attend church, the following answers were given: 27% did not feel comfortable with the old fashion traditions 18% felt ostracized for their past life experiences 16% could not find a church that was conducive to their work schedules 12% said their children would not understand it 8% didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to make a commitment or feel pressured to join a Bible group or ministry. (Church) No one church planter can reach every person, but it is clear that an effective approach communicating the vision of the church clearly and articulately to the population will show there is a growing need and desire among people to find a church home. The church planter and the core team should pool their resources and find other believers with talents and gifts and use them to help build the ministry. As a congregation grows, it can expand the realms of its ministry to cater to the needs of the target groups in the area. Finances Of all the obstacles faced by the church planter and the core team, finances are at the top of the list. So many people avoid the ministry of church planting because of the issue of finances. Too many times, the spouse of the church planter supports the family until the church officially opens it doors and is self-sufficient (Malphurs 47). If the new church is adopted by a mother church, then there may be a salary or a budget to help cover expenses and living costs for the church planter, the church, and maybe the core team. This may be a gift from the mother church, or a budget may be established through the missions ministry, or a call may be made to individual congregation members to help support the church through special tithes and offerings (Church). Quite often, the church planter and the core team will have to work a second job to help pay their family bills. This often makes the church planting process longer to fulfill as valuable time is spent at the salaried position and not accomplishing the goals of the new church (Wagner 84). There are several important, practical financial avenues that will help church planters in their efforts to raise money for the new church. Three of the principles listed are negative and focus on what drives people from not being as forthcoming with their tithing gifts. The last two are positive and aid the church planter in knowing what potential contributors are looking for in the church (Schaller 137). People do not want to feel the church will be or become dependant on their financial contribution. Contributors do not want to feel they are satisfying a churchÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"wantsÃ¢â¬ (i.e. salaries, utility bills, or mortgages). The contributors may feel their money is being used to help the church minister to others by buying Bibles, donating to a church library, or a specific ministry in need (Miller 126). People, in general, do not like being made to feel guilty by not helping the church. Too many times, church leadership will announce that the church needs money to pay for this or pay for that. Contributors who feel guilty about helping the church with their donations will stop making those donations after a period of time and may look for a new church that will not give them such a negative feeling (Church). According to Lyle Schaller, Ã¢â¬Å"People do not want to have to feel their donation is going to cover the needs of the church.Ã¢â¬ (139) Church members like to hear good news about what is taking place in the church and to be constantly told the church is running short of keeping itself afloat tends to discourage them from contributing. Givers will respond positively to visions. The key to this principle is for the church planter and the core team to always remember the vision that brought the congregation through the doors initially. If people see the visions of the church are being accomplished, even if it is one small step at a time, the people will jump on the band wagon and continue to support the vision, both financially and in prayer (Malphurs 54). Finally, the church congregation responds to BIG visions. Church planters and the core team need to think big and have big visions because there is a big God who has big plans for all Christians. The church planter, the core team, and the congregation need to continually update and expand on the original vision that started the church family (Malphurs 310). The First Sunday There are a tremendous number of obstacles the church planter faces with the core team as they accomplish the commands of Jesus with the Great Commission. Planting new churches is not an easy task as taught in the Bible with Jesus and His disciples and Paul with his team. Through faith, prayer, obedience, hard work, and following the structured game plan, the church planter can effectively plant a new church and watch the church grow from a simple vision into flourishing and fruitful tree in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom that can continue on and provide support for new churches it develops later on. Back, Jerry. Church Planting Responsibilities and Ministry. Diss. Western Conservative Baptist Seminary, 1983. Brock, Charles. The Principles and Practice of Indigenous Church Planting, Nashville: Broadman Press, 1981. Chaney, Charles L. Church Planting at the End of the Twentieth Century, Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1984. Church Planting Churches. Dirs. Logan, Robert E. and Ogne, Steven L. 1995. Videocassette. CRM Publishing. Heron, Pastor. Personal Interview. 5 April 2007. Hesselgrave, David J. Planting Churches Cross-Culturally, Grand Rapids: The Baker Book House, 1980. Holy Bible, New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002. Malphurs, Aubrey. Planting Growing Churches for the 21st Century, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1998. Miller, Bernard K. A Theological and Intercultural Examination of Descriptors of the Local Church the Goal of a Church Planting Ministry. Diss. Western Conservative Baptist Seminary, 1988. Ritchey, Blair Alan. Wesleyan Church Planting in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, Diss. Fuller Theological Seminary, 1992 Schaller, Lyle E. 44 Questions for Church Planters, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991. Shenk, David W. and Ervin R. Stutzman. Creating Communities of the Kingdom, Scottsdale: Herald Press, 1988. Swauger, Paul L. Plan to Plant: a 10-Step Guide for Planting New Churches, Indianapolis: The Wesleyan Church, 1990. Wagner, C. Peter. Strategies for Church Growth, Ventura: Regal Books, 1987. Research Papers on A Game Plan for Planting New ChurchesComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Hockey GameAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaDefinition of Export QuotasRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanThe Project Managment Office SystemTrailblazing by Eric AndersonQuebec and Canada