Friday, December 27, 2019

Gender Segments And Sex Groups During Childhood And Early...

Intro: Gender cleavage refers to the tendency for children of the same gender to self-segregate into two same-sex groups, male and female. This phenomenon appears to be a primary factor influencing social and cognitive development during childhood and early adolescence. The peer-reviewed article discussed in this paper focuses on gender cleavage in addition to age-related variances and sex differences during middle childhood. Peer-Review Article: The main point of the article is to analyze cross-sectional data from group preference surveys to determine sex and age-related differences in gender cleavage so that researchers can identify possible developmental aspects in gender cleavage for both boys and girls. Middle childhood gender cleavage studies based on the work of Moreno in 1953, are the foundation of this investigation. The article never clearly stated a hypothesis, but from reading the article, it is possible to make the assumption that researchers were interested in determining why children break up into same-sex groups during critical periods of childhood development and how gender and age play a role in this phenomenon (Smith et al., 2001). Data was collected from 299 students across three coeducational public schools in Australia in 2005. Children in grades 3-6 were the participants in this study. These schools were chosen because they represented diverse socioeconomic divisions, sizes, and school atmosphere and culture. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Thought-experiments in Kurt Vonneguts Slaughterhouse...

The Thought-experiments in Kurt Vonneguts Slaughterhouse Five or the Childrens Crusade: A Duty Dance With Death In 1945 Kurt Vonnegut witnessed a horrific series of bombings that led to the destruction of the German city of Dresden, where he was taken as a prisoner of war. The controversial fire-storm raid, carried out by bombers of the Royal Air Force and US Air Force, took casualties of up to a quarter million people (Klinkowitz x-xi). As a prisoner of war, Vonnegut was forced to participate as a corpse miner in the citys cleanup process. Upon his return from the Second World War, Vonnegut decided to write a book describing his traumatic war experiences. After twenty years of struggling with research, failing to recall personal†¦show more content†¦Although drastic presentations such as space and time travel potentially hinder the plausibility of the storyline and detach the reader from the text, it is this exact element in Slaughterhouse Five that returns the reader back into the story, bringing closer the relationship between the reader and Vonnegut himself. In this sense, this ex perimental form of narrative creates another Chrono-Synclastic Infundibulum: a place in the novel where both the reader and the author coexist. With this new form of storytelling Vonnegut commits himself to a novel that could possibly fail. However he takes this risk in order to produce a novel that reflects his personal experiences more closely than if he had abided with conventional styles. By inserting the readers and himself into the novel, Vonnegut thus subjects the readers to his personal experiences more directly; the act of reading Slaughterhouse Five becomes a simulation of Vonneguts past in Dresden. While Slaughterhouse Five was a novel intended to reflect Vonneguts personal experiences in Dresden, the delivery of the storyline suggests that the novel is anything but an autobiography. Instead, with space and time travel placed into the novel-without any scientific explanation-Slaughterhouse Five reads like a

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Business Group Learning Exercise

Question: Draw a table for Business Group Learning Exercise. Answer: Mission statement Advance Auto Parts Barnes Noble Estee Lauder Family Dollar Stores FedEx Ford Motor Company To fulfill the needs of personal vehicle owners and others showing enthusiasm to vehicle related products as well as knowledge at the correct price (Bryson, 2011). Yes No No No No No To operate the best specialty retail business in America despite of their products No Yes No No No No To bring the best products, people and ideas to everyone they are in touch Yes No Yes Yes No yes Provision of convenience and low to customers, provision of exceptional opportunities and rewards for associates achievement and the provision of outstanding returns for investors (Bryson 2011). Yes Yes To produce superior financial returns for shareowners through the provision of high values-added business, transportation, supply chain and related information (Ozdem, 2011). No No Yes No Yes To provide personal mobility for all the people around the world, being a global family No No yes No No Yes Corporate activities will be done with highest professional and ethical standards Yes To develop mutual and rewarding relationships with suppliers, employees and partners yes No yes yes yes yes Continuously bringing the styles and approaches of industry shades to the businesses that are steady with evolving their aspirations (Ozdem, 2011). Yes yes yes No No No

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Teacher Emotional Management in the Classroom

Introduction Teacher burnout is a significant problem that affects effective delivery of educational services to students. Although there are many factors that contribute to teacher burnout, emotional reactions that teachers experience in classroom is one of the factors that cause burnout and emotional enervation.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Teacher Emotional Management in the Classroom specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Disruptive behaviors of students in classroom elicit unpleasant emotional reactions in teachers when they make appraisals and thus contribute to burnout. Teachers usually strain to comprehend disruptive behaviors in an attempt to bring order and appraisal of disruptive behaviors is emotionally taxing leading to burnout. Therefore, disruptive behavior in classroom is the main factor that contributes to teacher burnout since appraisal reactions elicit unpleasant emotions that are emoti onally taxing. According to Chang (2009), the purpose of the study, â€Å"Teacher Emotion Management in the Classroom: Appraisal, Regulation, and Coping†, is to explore how novice teachers appraise disruptive behaviors of students in classroom and how unpleasant emotional responses contribute to burnout (p.11). The study further investigates how teachers can cope with unpleasant emotions by regulation them to alleviate emotional exhaustion and subsequent burnout. The hypothesis of the study is that, effective emotional regulation of unpleasant emotions can significantly alleviate burnout that emanates from disruptive behaviors of students in classroom. The problem statement of the study is very appropriate since literature review confirms that teacher burnout is the major problem that affects effective delivery of educational services to students. When teachers are in classroom, they experience varied disruptive behaviors that trigger appraisal and consequently unpleasant emo tions. The unpleasant emotions cause emotional strain that leads to teacher burnout and thus interfere with effective delivery of services by teachers. The problem of teacher burnout due to disruptive behavior is therefore plausible because it has its basis on personal experience and literature review.Advertising Looking for critical writing on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The purpose of the study is very objective as it aims at identifying disruptive behaviors and experiences of novice teachers with a view of formulating appropriate interventions of regulating unpleasant emotions emanating from teachers’ appraisals and subsequently preventing emotional exhaustion and burnout. The hypothesis of the study is clear and consistent with the objective of the study, which states that effective management and regulation of unpleasant emotions can help alleviate impacts of disruptive classroom behaviors of student s and thus prevent burnout in teachers. Moreover, for clarity, the study defined operational terms such as emotional appraisal, burnout, coping, emotional exhaustion, and emotional regulation amongst others. Definitions of operational terms enable readers to understand varied concepts and scope of the study. Methodology Process The study utilized online survey by selecting 555 novice teachers, females, 437, and males, 113, from a region of Midwestern United States. The online surveys targeted novice teachers who had teaching experience of 1-5 years and employed email as means of inviting and administering questionnaires to 4500 teachers. Out of the 4500 teachers, 713 teachers were willing to participate but only 555 filled their questionnaires accurately and thus participated in the study. To examine thoroughly how disruptive behaviors contribute to teacher burnout, the study design focused on general measurement and context-specific measurement. Concerning general measurements, the study aimed at collecting data that depicts how teachers view unpleasant emotions, experience burnout, regulate motions, and efficacy of teaching. To obtain comprehensive data, the study employed scales such as emotional regulation questionnaire, sense of efficacy scale, and burnout scale in the administered questionnaires. Regarding context-specific measurement, participants identified and described a disruptive behavior that recently challenged them and further explained how they appraise and cope with unpleasant emotions.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Teacher Emotional Management in the Classroom specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case, to measure specific variables, the study used emotional appraisal scale, discrete scale, and coping scale. Ultimately, the study utilized statistical design of structured and closed questionnaire to enhance collection and analysis of the data. Evaluation Se lection of 555 novice teachers was quite random thus eliminates selection bias that usually affect validity of research findings. Moreover, the survey targeted 4500 teachers using online surveys out of which 555 teachers qualified to participate in the study, hence signifies randomness in selection of participants. Furthermore, the online surveys are cost-effective and eliminate suggestive influence of interview on data collection. The study design that involved general and context-specific measurements is also appropriate because it focuses on both general views and recent personal experiences of novice teachers thus provide an in-depth focus of disruptive behaviors of students, appraisal tendencies of teachers, and regulation of unpleasant emotions. In the study, questionnaire was an integral component of the survey as it provided assessment of numerous variables and measurements using different scales such as emotional regulation scale, efficacy scale, appraisal scale, coping sca le, and discrete scale. Hence, different types of scales provided a broad perspective of collecting comprehensive data for analysis. Structured and closed form of questionnaires is appropriate in minimizing huge amount of data, which would otherwise be bulky if collected using other methods. Moreover, structured and closed questionnaire enhances statistical analysis of data and accurate determination of research findings. Results Process To analyze collected data effectively, the study employed technique of structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine relationship of various variables collected in survey. Structural equation modeling is a set of statistical techniques, which test how different variables and constructs of the study relate to each other. Using structural equation modeling, the study analyzed data in four steps viz. screening of data, model identification, model testing, and model estimation. Subsequently, the study used statistical package for social sciences (SPSS ) to come up with various statistical analyses. Concerning presentation of the results, the study employed tables and figures in explaining research findings.Advertising Looking for critical writing on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tables presented how different scales rank varied parameters such as emotional regulation, coping, appraising disruptive behaviors, unpleasant emotions, burnout and efficacy of teaching. The figures demonstrated how various variables such as disruptive behaviors, teachers’ appraisals, unpleasant emotions, and regulation of emotions interact in bringing about emotional exhaustion and burnout in teachers. Thus, SEM and SPSS analyzed collected data and the findings presented using tables and figures. Evaluation Since the study used two hypothetical models viz. unpleasant emotions regulation model and process of coping model, SEM technique of analyzing numerous variables and establishing their relationships was quite appropriate. Given that the study has numerous questionnaires, which are also detailed, preliminary analysis using multiple statistical techniques of SEM provides a basis of carrying further analysis and drawing reliable inferences from research findings. Moreove r, the ordinal nature of data collected required statistical analysis package of SPSS, which is quite accurate and reliable in carrying out various statistical analyses. SPSS is appropriate in analyzing both descriptive and inferential statistics with regard to multiple variables that affect burnout, for instance disruptive behaviors, appraisals, unpleasant emotions, and burnout. The study also employed tables and figures in presentation of the results to enhance clarity. The figures demonstrated how hypothesized models and numerous variables interact, resulting into burnout. Therefore, tables and figures enhanced presentation of the research findings for readers to comprehend. Discussion Process The research findings were consistent with earlier findings dealing with emotional management and burnout among teachers. Moreover, the study has also added significant contribution to growing body of research on teachers’ emotions and burnout. Since the study established that novice teachers experience unpleasant emotions after appraising disruptive behaviors of students, it has demonstrated that unpleasant emotions considerably contribute to burnout in teachers. In this context, the study suggests that, unpleasant emotions emanate from disruptive behaviors of students that strain teachers’ appraisals and lead to burnout. The study further asserts that effective regulation of emotions can cushion teachers from experiencing unpleasant emotions and consequently alleviate burnout and thus, it has formulated a model that demonstrates how disruptive behaviors, teachers’ appraisals, emotional regulation, and burnout interact. In addition to educational importance of the study, it has also made considerable contribution to appraisal theory in terms of enhanced unpleasant emotions on secondary appraisals and that appraisal of disruptive behaviors elicits significant unpleasant emotions that contribute to burnout and emotional exhaustion. The study conclu sively found out that emotional regulation of unpleasant emotions due to disruptive behaviors in classroom determines extent of burnout in teachers. Evaluation The study findings were quite valid because the study employed different models to elucidate relationships between different variables that contribute or mediate burnout in classroom. Research design, random selection of participants, use of comprehensive models, and statistical techniques has considerably enhanced internal validity and credibility of the findings. However, the study has low external validity that limits generalization of the findings because the participants were novice teachers who had experience of 1-5 years, hence did not represent teachers across all ranges of experience. Moreover, it is difficult to generalize the findings because the study occurred in one state; moreover, it targeted only participants who can access internet and there was low response rate of questionnaires. Thus, the study has more in ternal validity as compared to external validity, hence limits extrapolation of the findings. Reference Chang, M. (2009). Teacher Emotional Management in the Classroom: Appraisals, Regulation, and Coping with Emotions. American Educational Research  Association, 1-122. This critical writing on Teacher Emotional Management in the Classroom was written and submitted by user Niko Bonner to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.